Statistics Basics > Statistics Symbols in Alphabetical Order
Probability and Statistics Symbols
I’ve put these statistics symbols into quasi-alphabetical order, so that they are easy to find. When I say quasi-alphabetical, I mean that I have ordered them according to what they look like. For example, the Greek letter Beta (β) looks like the letter b, so you’ll find it in the b section. Same for the letter mu(μ), which looks like the letter u.cIf a statistics symbol doesn’t look like a letter, for example the “Greater than” symbol, >, you’ll find it at the very bottom under “miscellaneous.” Most items are clickable, taking you to an article that explains the statistics symbols in more depth.
Statistics Symbols A to Z
α: significance level (type I error).
b or b0: y intercept.
b1: slope of a line (used in regression).
β: probability of a Type II error.
1-β: statistical power.
BD or BPD: binomial distribution.
CI: confidence interval.
CLT: Central Limit Theorem.
d: difference between paired data.
df: degrees of freedom.
DPD: discrete probability distribution.
E = margin of error.
f = frequency (i.e. how often something happens).
f/n = relative frequency.
HT = hypothesis test.
Ho = null hypothesis.
H1 or Ha: alternative hypothesis.
IQR = interquartile range.
m = slope of a line.
n: sample size or number of trials in a binomial experiment.
N: population size.
ND: normal distribution.
σ: standard deviation.
σx̅: standard error of the mean.
σp̂: standard error of the proportion.
p: p-value, or probability of success in a binomial experiment, or population proportion.
ρ: correlation coefficient for a population.
p̂: sample proportion.
P(A): probability of event A.
P(AC) or P(not A): the probability that A doesn’t happen.
P(B|A): the probability that event B occurs, given that event A occurs.
Pk: kth percentile. For example, P90 = 90th percentile.
q: probability of failure in a binomial or geometric distribution.
Q1: first quartile.
Q3: third quartile.
r: correlation coefficient of a sample.
R2: coefficient of determination.
s: standard deviation of a sample.
s.d or SD: standard deviation.
SEM: standard error of the mean.
SEP: standard error of the proportion.
ν: degrees of freedom.
X: a variable.
x: one data value.
x̄: mean of a sample.
Miscellaneous Statistics Symbols
~ has the distribution of (source).
= equal to.
≈ almost equal to.
> greater than.
< less than.
≠ not equal to.
≤ less than or equal to.
≥ greater than or equal to.
If you prefer an online interactive environment to learn R and statistics, this free R Tutorial by Datacamp is a great way to get started. If you're are somewhat comfortable with R and are interested in going deeper into Statistics, try this Statistics with R track.Comments? Need to post a correction? Please post on our Facebook page.