Statistics How To

Non-Probability Sampling: Definition, Types

Sampling > Non-Probability Sampling

What is Non-Probability Sampling?

sample mean smallNon-probability sampling is a sampling technique where the odds of any member being selected for a sample cannot be calculated. It’s the opposite of probability sampling, where you can calculate the odds. In addition, probability sampling involves random selection, while non-probability sampling does not–it relies on the subjective judgement of the researcher.

The odds do not have to be equal for a method to be considered probability sampling. For example, one person could have a 10% chance of being selected and another person could have a 50% chance of being selected. It’s non-probability sampling when you can’t calculate the odds at all.

Advantages and disadvantages

A major advantage with non-probability sampling is that — compared to probability sampling — it’s very cost- and time-effective. It’s also easy to use and can also be used when it’s impossible to conduct probability sampling (e.g. when you have a very small population to work with).

One major disadvantage of non-probability sampling is that it’s impossible to know how well you are representing the population. Plus, you can’t calculate confidence intervals and margins of error. This is the major reason why, if at all possible, you should consider probability sampling methods first.

Many specific advantages and disadvantages exist for different types of non-probability sampling. You’ll find more information about each method below (click on a name to read more about a specific method’s advantages and disadvantages).

Types of Non-Probability Sampling

  • Convenience Sampling: as the name suggests, this involves collecting a sample from somewhere convenient to you: the mall, your local school, your church. Sometimes called accidental sampling, opportunity sampling or grab sampling.
  • Haphazard Sampling: where a researcher chooses items haphazardly, trying to simulate randomness. However, the result may not be random at all and is often tainted by selection bias.
  • Purposive Sampling: where the researcher chooses a sample based on their knowledge about the population and the study itself. The study participants are chosen based on the study’s purpose. There are several types of purposive sampling. For a full list, advantages and disadvantages of the method, see the article: Purposive Sampling.
  • Expert Sampling: in this method, the researcher draws the sample from a list of experts in the field.
  • Heterogeneity Sampling / Diversity Sampling: a type of sampling where you deliberately choose members so that all views are represented. However, those views may or may not be represented proportionally.
  • Modal Instance Sampling: The most “typical” members are chosen from a set.
  • Quota Sampling: where the groups (i.e. men and women) in the sample are proportional to the groups in the population.
  • Snowball Sampling: where research participants recruit other members for the study. This method is particularly useful when participants might be hard to find. For example, a study on working prostitutes or current heroin users.

If you prefer an online interactive environment to learn R and statistics, this free R Tutorial by Datacamp is a great way to get started. If you’re are somewhat comfortable with R and are interested in going deeper into Statistics, try this Statistics with R track.

Non-Probability Sampling: Definition, Types was last modified: June 25th, 2017 by Andale

9 thoughts on “Non-Probability Sampling: Definition, Types

  1. Andale Post author

    Hi, Ami,
    There are 7 different methods listed, so to compare and contrast each of them would be 21 different comparisons! In addition, purposive sampling has an additional 7 different types to compare and contrast…That would make for a very long blog post :).
    Some of the comparisons can already be found on the individual pages.
    Was there a specific comparison you need to make instead?

  2. Maria Veronica Ebit

    Ahm. Hi!!! May I know who’s the author of this article… I want his full name.
    Thank you!

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