The Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), invented by Brian Matthews in 1975, is a tool for model evaluation. It measures the differences between actual values and predicted values and is equivalent to the chi-square statistic for a 2 x 2 contingency table (Kaden et al., 2014).
The coefficient takes into account true negatives, true positives, false negatives and false positives. This reliable measure produces high scores only if the prediction returns good rates for all four of these categories (Chicco & Jurman, 2020).
Matthews Correlation Coefficient Formula
Like most correlation coefficients, MCC ranges between -1 and 1, where (Vothihong et al., 2017):
- 1 is the best agreement between actuals and predictions,
- zero is no agreement at all. In other words, the prediction is random with respect to actuals.
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Chicco, D. & Jurman, G. (2020). The advantages of the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) over F1 score and accuracy in binary classification evaluation. BMC Genomics volume 21, Article number: 6.
Kaden, M. et al., (2014). Optimization of General Statistical Accuracy Measures for Classification Based on Learning VectorQuantization. ESANN 2014 proceedings, European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks, Computational Intelligence
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Vothihong, P. et al. (2007). Python: End-to-end Data Analysis. Packt Publishing.
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Stephanie Glen. "Matthews Correlation Coefficient" From StatisticsHowTo.com: Elementary Statistics for the rest of us! https://www.statisticshowto.com/matthews-correlation-coefficient/
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