Types of Variable > What is a Qualitative Variable?

## Qualitative Variable: What is it?

Watch the video or read on below:

A qualitative variable, also called a categorical variable, are variables that are **not numerical**. It describes data that fits into categories. For example:

- Eye colors (variables include: blue, green, brown, hazel).
- States (variables include: Florida, New Jersey, Washington).
- Dog breeds (variables include: Alaskan Malamute, German Shepherd, Siberian Husky, Shih tzu).

These are all qualitative variables as they have no natural order. On the other hand, quantitative variables have a value and they can be added, subtracted, divided or multiplied.

Quantitative Variable |
Qualitative Variables |

Fractions | Cat breeds |

Decimals | Cities |

Odd Numbers | Fast Food Chains |

Whole Numbers | College Major |

Irrational Numbers | Fraternities |

Ordered pairs (x,y) | Hair Color |

Negative Numbers | Computer Brands |

Map coordinates | Beer breweries |

Positive Numbers | Pop music genre |

Exponents | Tribe |

As a general rule, if you can apply some kind of math (like addition), it’s a quantitative variable. Otherwise, it’s qualitative. For example, you can’t add blue+green (unless you’re in an art class — even then you “mix” them, you don’t add them!).

**Numbers are sometimes assigned to qualitative variables** for **data analysis**, but they are still classified as qualitative variables despite the numerical classification. For example, a study may assign the number “1” to males and “2” to females.

## Qualitative Variables and the Nominal Scale

Qualitative variables aren’t ordered on a numerical scale in statistics so they are assigned **nominal scales**. The word “nominal” means “name”, which is exactly what qualitative variables are. A nominal scale is a scale where no ordering is possible or implied (except for alphabetical ordering like New York, Washington, West Virginia or Chelsea, Edinburgh, London). In other words, the nominal scale is where data is assigned to a category.

More on quantitative variables.

See also: categorical variable.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------**Need help with a homework or test question?** With Chegg Study, you can get step-by-step solutions to your questions from an expert in the field. If you rather get 1:1 study help, Chegg Tutors offers 30 minutes of free tutoring to new users, so you can try them out before committing to a subscription.

If you prefer an **online interactive environment** to learn R and statistics, this *free R Tutorial by Datacamp* is a great way to get started. If you're are somewhat comfortable with R and are interested in going deeper into Statistics, try *this Statistics with R track*.

**Comments? Need to post a correction?** Please post a comment on our *Facebook page*.

Check out our updated Privacy policy and Cookie Policy